1 the thick short innermost digit of the forelimb [syn: pollex]
2 the part of a glove that provides a covering for the thumb
3 a convex molding having a cross section in the form of a quarter of a circle or of an ellipse [syn: ovolo, quarter round]
2 look through a book or other written material; "He thumbed through the report"; "She leafed through the volume" [syn: flick, flip, riffle, leaf, riff]
3 feel or handle with the fingers; "finger the binding of the book" [syn: finger]
Etymologyþuma, from , from , from (compare Latin tumere). Cognate with Dutch duim, German Daumen.
- Rhymes with: -ʌm
- trreq Afrikaans
- Arabic: إبهام
- trreq Aragonese
- trreq Armenian
- Asturian: pulgar, dedón, deda, matapioyos
- Basque: hazlodi
- Bosnian: palac
- Breton: biz-meud, bizied-meud; meud, meudoù
- Bulgarian: палец
- Catalan: polze
- Cantonese: 大拇指
- Mandarin: 大拇指
- Cantonese: 大拇指
- Croatian: palac
- Czech: palec
- Danish: tommelfinger, tommeltot
- Divehi: ބޮޑުވައި އިގިލި
- Dutch: duim
- Erzya: пелька
- Esperanto: polekso, dikfingro
- trreq Estonian
- Finnish: peukalo
- French: pouce
- West Frisian: tomme
- German: Daumen
- trreq Greek
- Hebrew: אגודל
- Hindi: अंगूठा
- Hungarian: hüvelykujj
- Icelandic: þumall, þumalfingur
- Ido: polexo
- Indonesian: ibu jari
- Interlingua: pollice
- Italian: pollice, dito grosso
- Japanese: 親指
- trreq Javanese
- Korean: 엄지, 엄지손가락
- trreq Kurdish
- trreq Kyrgyz
- Latin: pollex
- trreq Latvian
- trreq Lithuanian
- trreq Low Saxon
- trreq Malay
- Marathi: आंग्ठा
- Northern Sami: bealgi
- trreq Norwegian
- Pangasinan: tangan
- trreq Persian
- Pitjantjatjara: maṟa mama
- Polish: kciuk
- Portuguese: dedo polegar, polegar
- Romanian: deget mare
- Russian: большой палец
- trreq Sanskrit
- trreq Scots
- trreq Serbian
- Sicilian: puseri
- Slovak: palec
- Slovene: palec
- Spanish: pulgar
- Swahili: kidole gumba
- Swedish: tumme
- Telugu: బొటనవేలు
- Thai: sc=Thai
- Turkish: başparmak
- Ukrainian: полекс
- trreq Vietnamese
part of a slider
Derived termsrel-top terms derived from the noun
- all fingers and thumbs
- all thumbs
- brown thumb
- green thumb
- opposable thumb
- rule of thumb
- stick out like a sore thumb
- thumb a lift
- thumb a ride
- thumb wrestle
- thumbs up
- under one's thumb
- under the thumb
- To touch with the thumb.
- To turn the pages of (a book) in order to read it cursorily.
- I thumbed through the book and decided not to bother reading it all.
Anatomy of the opposable thumb
BonesThe thumb consists of three bones:
MusclesIts movements are controlled by eight muscles (each with "pollicis" in the name):
The extensor pollicis longus tendon and extensor pollicis brevis tendon form what is known as the anatomical snuff box (an indentation on the lateral aspect of the thumb at its base) The radial artery can be palpated anteriorly at the wrist(not in the snuffbox) In the hand, the abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and opponens pollicis form the thenar eminence.
Hitchhiker's thumbThe thumb when extended (as in a "thumbs-up") can also appear to bend backwards toward the nail and outwards, a recessive congenital condition known as "hitchhiker's thumb", whereas for other people it will extend straight out with little backward bending. Having either condition appears to have no effect on the thumb's function.
As one of five digits, and as companion to four fingers
The English word "finger" has two senses, even in the context of appendages of a single typical human hand:
- The four digits, not including the thumb.
- Any of the five digits.
Linguistically, it appears that the original sense was the broader of these two: penkwe-ros (also rendered as penqrós) was, in the inferred Proto-Indo-European language, a suffixed form of penkwe (or penqe), which has given rise to many Indo-European-family words (tens of them defined in English dictionaries) that involve or flow from concepts of fiveness.
The thumb shares the following with each of the (other) four fingers:
The thumb contrasts with each of the (other) four by being the only finger that:
- Is opposable
- Has two phalanges rather than three
- Has its inmost phalanx so close to the wrist
- Has much greater breadth and stubby proportions
- Is attached to such a mobile metacarpus (which produces most of the opposability)
Typical interdigital grips include the tips of thumb and second finger (forefinger/index finger) holding a pill or other small item, or thumb and sides of second and third fingers holding a pen or pencil.
Origin of the thumb
The evolution of the opposable or prehensile thumb is usually associated with Homo habilis, the forerunner of Homo sapiens. This, however, is the suggested result of evolution from Homo erectus (around 1 mya) via a series of intermediate anthropoid stages, and is therefore a much more complicated link.
The most important factors leading to the habile hand (and its thumb) are:
- the freeing of the hands from their walking requirements—still so crucial for apes today, as they have hands for feet, which in its turn was one of the consequences of the gradual pithecanthropoid and anthropoid adoption of the erect bipedal walking gait, and
- the simultaneous development of a larger anthropoid brain in the later stages.
It is possible though that a more likely scenario may be that the specialized, precision gripping hand (equipped with opposable thumb) of Homo habilis preceded walking, with the specialized adaptation of the spine, pelvis and lower extremities proceeding a more advanced hand. And, it is logical that a conservative, highly functional adaptation be followed by a series of more complex ones that complement it. With Homo habilis an advanced grasping-capable hand was accompanied by facultative bipedalism, possibly implying, assuming a co-opted evolutionary relationship exists, that the latter resulted from the former as obligate bipedalism was yet to follow. Walking may have been a byproduct of busy hands and not vice versa.
Importance of the opposable thumb
The thumb, unlike other fingers, is opposable, in that it is the only digit on the human hand which is able to oppose or turn back against the other four fingers, and thus enables the hand to refine its grip to hold objects which it would be unable to do otherwise. The opposable thumb has helped the human species develop more accurate fine motor skills. It is also thought to have directly led to the development of tools, not just in humans or their evolutionary ancestors, but other primates as well. The opposable thumb ensured that writing was possible. The thumb, in conjunction with the other fingers make humans and other species with similar hands some of the most dexterous in the world.
Other animals with thumbs
Many animals, primates and others, also have some kind of opposable thumb or toe:
- Orangutan - opposable thumbs on both hands and both feet. The interdigital grip gives them the ability to pick fruit.
- Gorillas-opposable on both hands and both feet.
- Chimpanzees have opposable thumbs on both hands and both feet.
- Lesser Apes have opposable thumbs on both hands and both feet.
- Old World Monkeys, with some exceptions, such as the genera, Piliocolobus and Colobus.
- Cebids (New World primates of Central and South America) - some have opposable thumbs.
- Koala - opposable toe on each foot, plus two opposable digits on each hand.
- Opossum - opposable thumb on rear feet.
- Giant Panda - Panda paws have five clawed fingers plus an extra bone that works like an opposable thumb. This "thumb" is not really a finger (like the human thumb is), but an extra-long sesamoid bone that works like a thumb.
- Troodon - a birdlike dinosaur with partially opposable thumbs.
- Bambiraptor - a small, predatory dinosaur, was able to touch the outer two of its three digits together in an opposable grip.
thumb in Arabic: إبهام
thumb in Catalan: Polze
thumb in Czech: Palec
thumb in Danish: Tommelfinger
thumb in Pennsylvania German: Daume
thumb in German: Daumen
thumb in Dhivehi: ބޮޑުވައި އިނގިލި
thumb in Spanish: Pulgar
thumb in Esperanto: Dikfingro
thumb in French: Pouce (anatomie)
thumb in Scottish Gaelic: Òrdag
thumb in Hindi: अंगुष्ठ
thumb in Croatian: Palac
thumb in Ido: Polexo
thumb in Indonesian: Ibu jari
thumb in Italian: Pollice (dito)
thumb in Hebrew: אגודל
thumb in Swahili (macrolanguage): Kidole gumba
thumb in Latin: Pollex (anatomia)
thumb in Dutch: Duim (vinger)
thumb in Japanese: 親指
thumb in Pangasinan: Tangan
thumb in Polish: Kciuk
thumb in Portuguese: Polegar
thumb in Romanian: Pulgar
thumb in Russian: Большой палец
thumb in Sicilian: Puseri
thumb in Simple English: Thumb
thumb in Finnish: Peukalo
thumb in Swedish: Tumme
thumb in Turkish: Başparmak
thumb in Ukrainian: Полекс
thumb in Võro: Päkk
thumb in Chinese: 拇指
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